The study of science has been used greatly to explain various phenomena and occurrences in the world today. Various observations that have been brought forward in the world are justified by scientists for better understanding. The study also enables a person to understand the various functions of the earth and relate them to others. The co relation and interdependence and the influence of one concept is used to determine another. Example is the use of energy to produce more energy, the study of genetics in order to treat and prevent diseases and also in the production of food.
The issues at hand have different explanations and a discrete answer about their existence does not readily exist. More information about them is discovered every minute various facts are also discovered and rumors are disputed.
Antibiotics are natural substances produced by a certain group of micro organisms and are used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Most people may confuse antibiotics with chemotherapeutic agents but the antibiotics are natural while the chemotherapeutic agents are derived from chemicals. The incorporation of chemicals to antibiotic results in the development of a semi synthetic antibiotic, this molecular version is used by scientist to counter specific problems. Science has further developed antimicrobial substances that were initially microbial products but are now purely developed in the laboratory. The first antibiotic was penicillin and it was discovered by Fleming’s in 1929. Later in 1935 Domagk’s discovered synthetic chemical called sulfonamides that had antimicrobial activities. The trend continued and more antibiotics were discovered. (Barlow M 2008)
Most natural antibiotics that are used for medicine and applied to our farms are produced from three groups of microbes; the eukaryotic moulds which a double spore forming bacteria, non cultural microbes that produce substances which helps them get rid of substances that seem to take over their space and secondary metabolites. The human species has undergone rapid evolution in a really short time on earth. Human relations to the microbial world has continue to change in time and it is assumed that even after the world ends the micro organisms will still survive.
The relation of human beings and micro organisms is an important for the survival of the human species. The idea that the bacteria will continue to survive has crated a challenge to the scientist. The relation between the microbes and humans is mutual such that man provides a host for the provision of nutrition, warmth and shelter for the microbes while the microbes provide nutrients and other basic co factors. This does not necessarily mean that all the microbes’ in the body are important. Some may result to diseases. The bacterial and fungal infections may cause damage to the human body therefore ways to eradicate these harmful pathogens has resulted to the discovery of antibiotics. Syphilis, leprosy, typhus, and other plagues have been the cause of suffering for mankind longer than famine and wars. (Abraham E. 1940)
The antibiotics are believed to have evolved for protection purposes. Initially when antibiotics were used the effect was immediate, later scientists discovered that there was a resistance of this diseases to the drugs but better health care methods were introduced to boost the effectiveness. Chemical industries in the 1950 were transformed from the production of fertilizers and dyes towards production of antimicrobial agents.
The high prizes of antibiotics resulted to mass production and use of the substances. The antibiotics were also to enhance growth of animals in the farm. The animals produced more and better products like chicken lay more eggs, milk from cows was produced in abundance, pig growth and maturity was hastened and the sizes of chicken was increased. The increase in use of antibiotics resulted to an increased resistance of the products, the results was a development of a regulation on the usage of such drugs. Most governments have resulted to teaching the public about the dangers of forming a resistance to the antibiotics. The public heed to the advice and there was a noted reduction of the resistance to the drugs. The antibacterium has a gene that is associated with an antidote. (Barlow M 2008)
The bacteria device methods of eliminating the toxins that the antibiotic produces. This is what is referred to as antibiotic resistance; the evolution of these bacteria to form resistant genes has lead to the development of stronger antibiotics to treat the disease. Initially antibiotics were used as enhancers to animal and plant growth but the law is outdated and the task is no longer accepted. The resistant DNA units in the plants and animals can be exchanged between various species. Horizontal gene transfer is the gene sharing procedure employed between members of different species. Example is the use of manure in plants the feeding the plants to animals in the farm results to gene transfer from plants to animals. Transformation to originality in plants requires the use of two different gene systems this is quit impossible as there are no plants of that nature that still exist. It is therefore evident that the result of the resistance is not reversible. Another danger that can occur is the more the genes are transferred the greater the danger due to gene mutation. This may result to further resistance to antibiotics.
The consumption of raw vegetables and fruits leads to the consumption of the antibiotics use in their growth, the negative impacts of these antibiotics can therefore be transferred to man and lead to further resistance. The consumption of genetically modified foods has therefore been discouraged over the years. (Abraham E. 1940)
The study of methods in which the antibiotics have acquired the resistance has been carried out by various scientists. First there is a lengthy process which is dangerous to the organism that takes place; it is a type of DNA mutation process. There is also the direct gene transfer method using plasmids, in this case a chromosome that has already mutated is transferred from one bacterium to another. The horizontal transfer as the latter is referred to can be faster and more dangerous as it readily affects a wide variety of organisms within a short time. (Thuille N 2003)
An example is the bacteria in the gut referred to as tetracycline, small amounts of antibiotics that are exposed to the tetracycline make it more resistance. The world heath organization has noted that there is an increased resistance of the microbes to antibiotics and therefore an international network to deal with the issue has been employed. Control of bacterial infections and surveillance and monitoring of the production and use of antibiotics has contributed to the regulation of formation of resistance.
The mechanisms that the microbes acquire in order to resist the antibiotics can be summarized as follows: enzymatic inactivation or modification of the drug, alteration of the binding site of the antibiotic such that no lock and key mechanism can take place, alteration of the metabolic path way, reduction in permeability of the drug by reducing its accumulation. Employment of a mechanism to reduce intracellular concentration of quinolone, this leads to the reduction of the surface area of the binding sites of the quinolones which result to a less effective drug. (Thuille N 2003)
It should be noted that antibiotics are not used to fight viral infections like cold and flu coughs and bronchitis, sore throats and others therefore the use of the antibiotics to eradicate viral diseases can cause more harm than good in an individual as their body increases it resistance to the antibiotic. The dose for antibiotics should be finished even if one feels better in the course of its use; lack of completion renders the earlier dosage null but still has some effects on the resistance.
We should remember that the use of antibiotics kills more than the disease we are supposed to destroy, it goes further to kill other susceptible bacteria which may be useful, this gives a chance for the multiplication of resistant bacteria as its competition has been eliminated. It is safe to conclude that the use of antibiotics can be useful or harmful depending on method of use. The resistance to antibiotics can be controlled by reducing its usage but it is impossible to reverse any resistance that has already occurred due to unavailability of pure genes of plant and animal species.
The best way to reduce the occurrences of resistance is by regulating the use of the antibiotics both in the farms and for our medication, it is also essential to teach the society on the dangers of using too many antibiotics are it in the growth of crops or direct usage as medication. Patience in hospitals should be advised to finish their dosage of antibiotics and the dangers of not completing should be explained to them.