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History of cosmetic surgery dates back to the early 1900 but it is thought to be much earlier than that since Indian physicians used skin grafts to carry out reconstructive work as early as the 18th the century before Christ. Simple techniques of repairing skins were conducted by the Romans from around the first century before Christ and in the 15th century. It was described in Europe by Von Pfolspeundt as a process of removing skin from the back of the arm and suturing it in place. The process was not common until the 20th century when anesthesia discovery occurred due to a lot of pain involved earlier. Infection due to surgery was also reduced after the surgeons incorporated the use of sterile technique and disinfectants during the procedures.
Another step in the making the surgery a success was the invention and use of sulfa antibiotics and penicillin.
The first plastic surgery in United States of America was conducted by Dr John Peter Mettauer who performed the first cleft palate operation in 1982 using g his own designed instruments. The father of the modern plastic surgery is considered to be a New Zealander Sir Harold Gilies. He made the advance when caring for people with facial injuries in the First World War. His invention was developed further by his cousin student Archilbald Mcindole who did radical experimental treatment leading to plastic surgery. It was carried out for cosmetic rather than practical reason.Cosmetic surgery as an official profession was organized in the United States in 1931 and led to the formation of the American society of plastic and reconstructive surgeons which put into place of regulatory practices.
As technology advanced and surgical procedures becoming common, cosmetic surgery evolved. In the mid twentieth century elective cosmetic surgery emerged as a way of improving and enhancing healthy and normal body. Unlike reconstructive surgery elective cosmetic surgery is about shaping and modifying the body to achieve some beauty ideals. Common procedures that are practiced are liposuction, breast reconstruction, eyelid surgery, and abdominoplasty.
According to Pliny the elder, Concern for beauty especially in women began 2000 years ago. In his view, women of the Roman Empire were using natural products in ways that would be instantly recognized. The products include the deodorants, hair dye, wrinkle removers, breath fresheners and they even did face painting. He believes that over the years, those that were using the cosmetics attracted admiring glances from other people for different reasons including for honor and ritual reasons in a way similar to the modern use of cosmetic surgery. That is for sexual attraction. He further went ahead to pose a question whether the procedures made any difference on the way other people behaved and whether it affected perception positively or negatively.
Currently cosmetic surgeries have increased especially in the United States of America with liposuction being the most performed, followed by breast augmentation. This is due to the adoption of microsurgery which can be sequenced and combined to match an individual’s unique needs. Some of the benefits of the surgery include increased appearance to increase confidence just like the Romans used to paint their faces to increase beauty according to the Pliny the Elder. The procedure can also be applied in correcting bad facial appearance due to aging and harmful sun rays. Such procedures include face lift procedure. Though the cosmetic surgery is important for enhancing beauty, it is associated with risks that are very dangerous. They include extra bleeding after the surgical procedure, increased pain, fever, discoloration around the wound area and increased numbing.
Cosmetic surgery being a beauty enhancing procedure attracts many people both men and women but it poses risks that can be of great danger to human life. The procedure is also costly Therefore potential clients must ensure that they visit certified qualified surgeons for the procedure and also follow the instructions after the procedure as directed by the surgeon.