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Domestic violence refers to any form abusive conduct by one or both partners who are in a close relationship such as family, marriage, friends, dating or cohabiting. Domestic violence may not be seen as a crime depending on the local statues, duration of the acts and severity as well as other variables but it is a form of abuse that affects millions of people around the world with deadly effects. The perception, documentation and awareness of domestic violence varies among nations from time to time. Although a significant number of men have been affected by domestic violence, it is clear that shelter houses accomodating abused women prove that their is a lot of domestic violence directed to women and children.
Domestic violence is also refered to as child abuse, IPV (intimate partner violence), spousal abuse or domestic abuse. Domestic violence can generally be defined as a form of opprobrious behaviors by either one or both partners who are in a close relationship such as family, marriage, friends, dating or cohabiting. There are many forms of domestic violence such as physical aggression (shoving, hitting, throwing objects, kicking, restraining and biting) or issuing threats, domineering or controlling, sexual abuse, covert/passive abuse, stalking, intimidation, economic deprivation and emotional abuse. Sometimes Domestic violence may not be seen as a crime depending on the local statues, duration of the acts and severity as well as other variables. Mental illness and alcohol consumption have been some of the common factors that are blamed on spousal abuse (Boyd, Phillips & Dorsey, 2003).
The perception, documentation and awareness of domestic violence varies among nations from time to time. It has been estimated that 33 percent of cases associated with domestic violence are reported in the United Kingdom and the United States. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) reported that domestic violence is a serious public health issue that can be prevented. It was estimated that more than thirty two million or ten percent of the people in the US are affected by domestic violence. There has been more emphasis on women as the sufferers of domestic violence. Statistics indicate that women have suffered more in terms of injury rates as a result of domestic violence. Reports also show that women have experienced higher rates of abuse. Other reports indicate that men seem to be the ones who inflict the injuries. (Gadomski, Tripp, Wolff, Lewis & Jenkins, 2001).
Although women have received a lot of attention in regard to domestic violence, men have also been reported to be victims of the abuse with a significant figure that also needs attention. The issue of men being victimized by women has been controversial due to the conflicting reports about domestic violence. Some of the statistics indicate that men are more likely to use violence than women (Sudderth, 2003).
National surveys indicated that the percentage of the women who had experienced abuse was: Egypt 34%, US 22%, Barbados 30%, Switzerland 21%, Canada 29% with Newzealand recording 35%. CDC (Centers for Disease Control) and the bureau of Justice provided data that indicated that women were more likely to experience intimate partner violence than their male counterparts. Estimates show that for every 1000 men, 45 of them are victims of domestic violence while for every 1000 women, 30 of them are said to be victims of domestic violence perpetrated by their partners. A report released in 1997 shows that men are more likely not to expose their attackers as compared to women. In 2009 statistics indicated that there was a significant change in the acceptance of violence committed by women than by men. Surveys in Paraguay and the Philippines show figures that are as low as 10 percent. The highest rate of domestic violence is said to be in South Africa which also include sexual abuse and domestic abuse. About 80 percent of the women living in rural Egypt said that physical abuse was common especially when disagreements arise between husband and wife. About 70
percent of indian women have experienced domestic violence. Up to 67 percent of some parts of Nigeria say that they have experienced physical abuse.
Child abuse, violence against teens, common couple abuse, mutual violence control, intimate terrorism, situational couple violence and other forms of violence are among the various problems that many people face on a day-to-day basis. It is clear that shelter houses accomodating abused women prove that their is a lot of domestic violence directed at women and children. Although a significant number of men affected by domestic violence has been reported, the situation of gender-based violence is critical when it comes to women. In countries that are outside Northern Europe and Northern America, gender inequality has been a big problem (Hall, & Becker, 2002).
The solution for domestic violence is to deal with domestic abuse through courts of law, through couples therapy, confining those who cannot be rehabilitated in places where they cannot harm other people and use of medication to contain aggression. Clozapine and selective serotonin re-uptake ihibitors (SSRIs) like beta blokers, hormonal antiandrogenic agents, prozac, ariipiprazole and quetiapine can be used to control aggression. Anticonvulsants and Lithium can also be used although their efficacy is not highly recommended.