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The term racism is used to describe the hostile and negative feelings of one ethnic group or community towards another and the actions that result from the development of such attitudes, racism to some extents can lead to brutality against the group perceived to be inferior by the other ethnic group. Racial discrimination and brutality could sometimes be based squarely on skill color, physical attributes, cultural differences and biological inequalities and generally factors that would make one be looked at as racially different. This ethnocentric dislike has had diverse effects on the societies such as: xenophobia, colonialism and a desire to attack the “inferior” ethnic group by the one that considers itself superior.
Racists believe that someone’s race affects their behavior and the way they look at things, one is not necessarily a racist if he is a racialist, the former believes that the beliefs he holds-which makes him identify with a certain ethnic group- are superior to those of others, the latter however holds to the truth of certain hypothesis about one ethnic group that are perceived to make it different from others. All various forms of racism: Social, instituitional or individual are all based on inferiorization and antipathy. For the definition to be absolute racism must involve ethnic prejudice and discrimination that leads to substantial harm and or racial offence, in this way, racism is universally captured. Racism indeed is a universal phenomenon.
Using the population of the
The black and Latino women were affected by the population control campaigns to reduce the population of these two races, there were efforts by non-governmental organizations to launch campaigns and policies to ensure the introduction of contraception to control their population, there was also a campaign on these women to ensure permanent sterilization. Attempts to introduce such laws to introduce compulsory contraception on black and Latino women failed just because the bills failed to gain much popularity. These crackdowns are due to the fact that women were seen as the reproductive agents.
The law enforcement agencies-which ironically, should maintain law and order- in
In the western paradigms, education can be seen as a factor that has spread racism, an attempt to define the human species in terms of civilization, evolution and progress also gives place for racism ideas. The mere fact that a nation identifies with a particular culture still frustrates efforts to end racism. It’s therefore not wrong to argue that stereotyping, prejudice and generally lack of information encourage racism in one way or the other. Notions that nations have on the possiblity of immigrants to pose a threat on them politically or economically because of their perceived pre-eminence in certain fields are a major cause of racism; this is pegged to their cultures or races. Western nations have denied other races citizenship in their states based on the above notion.
The imposition of the languages that are foreign to the natives of a country simply because of colonialism is another factor that has encouraged racism because up to date, the native languages have not been included in the education systems; the colonial powers feel superior because this is viewed as neocolonialism. Failure of educational institutions to educate people on native history and instead history of other states is also a contributory factor. The definition of racism in itself also is limited to culture of different people which leads to cultural bias.
Different governments and especially those in the white paradigms have concentrated power on the hands of their natives; immigrants are therefore not represented in administration and governance. In such a case, there is a high likelihood that laws are made to suit the indigenous people a factor that leads to poor representation of other races in governance; this by extension has led to oppression of the other races due to lack of equity (Nakata, 2001,pp. 49-51).
Understanding the causes of racism helps in finding the solutions, education as much as is a cause of racism can also be part of the solution; institutions can organize workshops to educate students on racism and the importance of dealing with this phenomenon, this solves the problem of ignorance and unappreciation of other races. The political class should be instrumental in dealing with racism, laws that encourage segregation along racial lines should be abolished, and there should be equity in representation especially in governance so that every race is adequately represented in
leadership. Laws and government policies also need to be reformulated and efforts to make peoples ideologies revised should be encouraged (Essed, 1991, pp115-117).
Neocolonialism must be discouraged, syllabuses in schools need to be revised to ensure students learn their history and not foreign histories, indigenous languages need to be incorporated in syllabuses and not imposition of English as the language of learning, this creates a superiority complex situation. One way of dealing with racism is encouraging sports and social activities, sports governing bodies ought to ensure color is not considered when recruiting sport personalities. I believe with collective responsibility by governments, educational facilities and individuals efforts to end racism; this can be ended across all nations (Carrington &McDonald, 2001, p147).