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Any global or localized human grouping differentiated from the rest on the account of history and a score of hereditary physical traits is termed as a race. Intelligence defines the harmonization of perceptual characteristics of an entity. The awareness of the surrounding backed by conceptual, recall, sensory and logic factors culminate to the intelligence level. The definition of intelligence is as complicated as the word itself . Intelligent people are observed to relate the surrounding with the situations in a manner that culminates to gain.
Alfred Binet bore the idea of IQ in 1905. His intention was to decipher the reason behind instances of failure and success among people under the similarly circumstances, with an intention to devise intervention strategies. The realization that there was a difference in mental age (MA) from the chronological age (CA) led to development of IQ tests.
Mental age is the capability of an individual to perform functions while the chronological age is the period in years since birth. The quotient of the mental age and chronological age is what defines IQ i.e. 100MA/CA. The mental age differs from the chronological age due to varying factors. Changes in the IQ after 16 are negligible thus most people use 16 as the ideal time to measure someone’s IQ.
Due to the use of IQ scores in psychometric measures, predicting job performance and defining ability to excel in circumstances it has become an importance tool in modern day world. The criticism encountered in relation to IQ tests is borne out of the premise that minority and destitute children tend towards dismal performance as compared with rest of their peers.
Contemporary ideas of how the brains works and intelligence cannot be measured through the IQ tests currently provided . A better determinant, according to is the use of multiple intelligence which consists of an array of distinctive areas of testing. This method, according to the growing number of proponents, will encompass a wider scope of competencies and talents inherent in the students. Similarly it will be able to address traditionally sidelined minorities
Flynn (171–191) observed that the utilization of IQ testing to gauge aptitude was not standardized in the varied geographical settings. Some, he continues, do not test implicit strengths and co-curricular activities which are markers of success too.
IQ testing originated after observation in marked variation in performance among individuals. Many believed that it arose from socio-economic factors and inborn biological factors. However, Plomin (89-194) contributed that genetics and race contributed greatly to intelligence. Through the Bell Curve, they pointed out that affirmative action and Head Start programs did nothing to alleviate situation of low IQ performance.
However the use of IQ testing is not dispensable since it is used during placement decision making for students and in careers. Some tests, after years of research, have been standardized to produce tallying results from individuals after subsequent sittings (Plomin 89-104) group differences date back to the late 1800s with subsequent works by Rushton & Jensen (21-36) whose views have been met with a wide array of reactions.
Data used for intelligence profiling in relation to races is not dependable. Thus, however much studies into the the correlation are necessary for policy making and corrective measures no one has come up with conclusive evidence of the correlation.
Unlike views denoting intelligence inferiority of black Africans to white Europeans, observed that the scenario occurs due to environmental factors. Racial divergences in IQ culminated from history of schooling, health, and novelty of test format (Lynn 365–375). She suggested that most of the tests were based on scenarios in the American setting with skewness towards Whites cultures. Over the years the Flynn effect (Flynn 134 ) could be caused by the fact the smarter people are breeding more or they contribute a greater percentage of those taking the test.
Social cultural interactions and change in features of the exam could also contribute greatly. Despite there not being a correlation between race and IQ, in their study, Jensen& Rushton (21-36) found profound similarities between race and IQ score, supporting racial inferiority.
Leontine (400-411) view that race is determined by certain genes has been widely accepted. Environmental factors determine the how physical features evolve due to sexual and natural selection. Climate affected the cultural practices as well as the dietary constituents. Lynn’s (365–375) postulation that climate was a factor in IQ scores was faulted on basis of using scores from an outdated tests.
However most of the studies targeted a limited scope of human characteristics thus were bound to find differences. Sternberg et al (401-418) argues that despite there being genetic variations among races, the larger the genetic markers used, the greater the genetic convergence.
Despite the significant steps towards standardizing education, African American and other minority groups’ students still face inequities in all levels of schooling. Such inequities are more pronounced in the students from lower socioeconomic classes. Studies have shown that ethnicity does sometimes influence instructors decision in referrals for talented individuals. This has been observed to affect overall achievement of the individual and group over the long-run.
Similarly, teaching staff from the minor groups tend to associate more with students from their ethnic setting-including stepping in as advocated after indiscipline cases and other scenarios (Warikoo 135-147. This has raised concerns over the detrimental outcome and led to diversity training in teacher training colleges.
Sternberg et al (401-418) found that those students who performed poorly in conventional preset exams did much better if the tests administered were spontaneous. The unfamiliar circumstance created by isolation during the exams contributes greatly to the score in some cultures.
In a report by Rushton & Jensen (7-20), the average IQ for African American individual was lower than that of any other races. They also reported that the observed deviation of scores in the IQ test was duplicated in other aptitude tests (GRE and SAT) which impact their success in society. Socio-economic and cultural factors could be to blame for the outcome although no evidence of that was forthcoming. A task force from the APA concurred on the genetic component inheritability in the Whites community but found no evidence as regards the postulations of the Blacks community.
In the definition of race, Jensen et al (21-36) grouped humanity according to basis of ancestry. Blacks drew ancestry from Sub-Saharan regions,Whites from European domains while East Asians originated from Pacific Regions. in their study,supported Jensen & Rushton (7-20) view that since the genetic testing during the WW I, it was observe that there was consistent disparity between the IQ levels with Blacks ranking lower than Whites. The difference among races was observed as early as at 3 years of age, during which maternal influence has not exerted any substantial effect.
Ten categories of evidence were posted in their report. The world wide score patterns displayed that Asians averaged higher than all the other races despite the test characteristics focusing on Euro-American features.
From an analysis of IQ scores of races converge towards racial averages. Since children inherit genetic matter from parents, it was observed that children of above average parents had similar ratings similarity in other life characteristics are consistent. In relation to maturation, personality, reproduction and social organization the correlation was converging.
Similarly, the IQ of off-springs of black African soldiers and German women during WWII has been shown to be identical to that of off-springs of pure white descent. Nesbitt (302-310) posted that Blacks and Whites IQ gap has continued to close up in recent years despite the lack of recent data. As observed in the children in post-war Germany, descendant of Black males had an IQ rating averaging 96.5 points while that of children fathered by White soldiers averaged 97. Due to the similarity in qualification for signing up into the military being an acceptable representation of the American population, it was observed genetics had no effect on the IQ (Flynn 134 ).
Observation of mean IQ scores from data collected over wide geographical location postulated that environmental factors do not contribute greatly. Despite long term independence (from slavery and colonialism) the rating have changed slightly. The dispute doesn’t lie in the existence of a 15-18 point difference between Whites’ and Blacks’ performance but in the contributing factors.
Lynn (365-375) reviewed over 20 studies from around the Africa and found that the average score was 70. During a study in Kenya, the researcher offered tuition on problem solving after an average of 70 on the IQ test. Subsequent testing resulted to 80 point average. This gave an insight to the efficiency of intervention measures (Sternberg et al-401-418)
Similarly,the Glenwood School experiment by Skeels in 1938 showed that environment did indeed affect the IQ. After placing low IQ (64 point ratings) students in a different location with more facilities, greater social and intellectual stimulation, it was observed that the IQ rating increased by 29 points in just eighteen months.
Later adoption set the students apart thus disrupting the similarity in environment. Follow up studies two years after adoption showed marked difference between those children who had been adopted (101 points) and their peers. A control group from the orphanage had lower averages bordering retardation while the experimental group grew into productive adults.
In a different study in Milwaukee by Heber in 1967, characterized by dense population and low socioeconomic status, newborns were from mothers with IQ ratings of below 80. Most of the children were black and from single parents. They were divided into a control and experimental group randomly. In the experimental group at the center, focus on education and social needs was placed for both mother and child at the center unlike in the control group.
By age six the experimental group had IQ averages of 120 points compared to 87 points in the control group. After attending school in same environment with the children from the control group, the experimental group had decreased IQ (105 points) while the control maintained the status quo. The attributable reason was that the quality of schooling was not as stimulating as earlier at the center.
The focus on environmental factors has been conclusive and wide. The quality of school years have positive impact, school being initial source of information. It was found that better schooling and teaching quality impacted in the IQ after observing students transferred to a higher ranking school. Neisser (77-101) also found a correlation between the number of years spent in school and the IQ. By analysis, for students of same age who went to school at different age, the difference in school years accounted for the difference in IQ.
Malnourished students perform poorer than their counterparts. In a study in Guatemala, undernourished preschoolers placed on protein-rich diet showed significant IQ difference than those who did not (Pollitt 1-99). However the study is faulted on the motivation and social factors related to malnutrition. Jensen (184 –191) posited the toxicity hypothesis suggesting that breast feeding aided to protect infants from heavy metal pollution. From Jensen (184 –191) findings, Black mother had a 33 % chance of breastfeeding compared to White mothers.
Of key to note is presence of inorganic pollution among impoverished neighborhoods. Children from such environments portray lower scores in IQ testing. Children living in areas having high concentration of lead pollution tended towards retardation and poor mental capabilities.
However no specific observations have been tested in relation to toxic effects. On the other hand, conditions resulting from drug use during pregnancy has been observed to affect the attention and memory levels of a child as well as the IQ (Streissguth 3-11). Similar results were observed in relation to birth weight and length of breastfeeding. Low birth-weight is known to affect the health of the child and immunity. Due to socio-economic factors, low weight births in low class has been observed to have more adverse effects than in affluent areas.
Earlier researchers into the relation between cognitive abilities and the size of the brain depended on weighing the wet matter of the brain or measuring the empty skulls from different geographic locations and estimating the volumes. However using computer assisted tomography (CAT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) they are able to create a three dimensional representation of the brain. Paul Broca in 1820 observed that the size of the head, and thus the brain size depicted higher intelligence level (Gignac 93-106).
Skilled workers, adults and eminent individuals had slightly larger head sizes. Significant evidence has been observed in relation to brain size and and cognitive ability. However these factors are not entirely attributed to genetics and can occur due to environmental factors (Eysenck 133-136).
Rushton (21-36) supported the finding of other scientists that brain size is a product of socio-economic variances. He sampled data from an array of individuals and found that the unskilled workers had average small head sizes than the professionals. Interestingly, this observation was more evident in men than in women. In the situation of racial differences, Nesbitt (302-310). faulted the procedure. He termed the comparison as meaningless and baseless due to failure to consider nutrition, climatic conditions, body characteristics, and geographical location. The implication of these factors could impart up to a 20% change in brain mass eliminate and effect by the race (Nesbitt 302-310).
Questions have arisen as regards the use of tests for racial comparison. The similar patterns shown by the results have given weight to tests due to duplicated outcomes over racial grouping. Differences in brain size are correlated with cognitive capabilities-which are greatly evident from class, gender and racial peculiarities. Nutrition may have an impact on the cognitive abilities although much of the effect is observed in physical strength. However more research is required to determine the variation in brain size and cognitive ability and the causes of variations in brain sizes among different races.
Nesbitt (302-310) argued that brain size was not a factor determining IQ. The brain size changes as a result of skill development and due to heightened need for expertise which varies depending on the culture and group dynamics.
Heritability is approximated at at least 50% in all races. Uttermost deprivation was not observed in any setting in form of slavery or poverty. Such conditions of deprivation would only affect the heritability, a case which is not supported. Brain size differences have also been observed to affect intelligence due to presence of more components for processing information. Two dozen studies using (MRI) have proved that the brain size is tended towards the IQ rating within races.
Four studies have realized that a correlation exists between brain size and IQ within families as well as between families. Race variation in head size are evident prenatal. black fetuses recorded a smaller head size than other races as early as the 9th week, difference which became more pronounced with development as observed by Lynn (365-375)
After birth and up to 7 years, Rushton (768-776) observed that black children ranked third after Asian and white children in cranial volumes. At every stage, there was observed a positive relation between head size and IQ. Lynn (365-375) observed that Asian had larger brain mass than Whites who had larger brain mass than Blacks despite the similarity in body mass. Separate studies by Rushton & Ankney, (21-36), targeting brain volume depicted that Africans had a smaller brain volume than Caucasians.
However the differences on brain structure between men and women still remain unconfirmed. Some suggest that brain-matter is more compactly arranged in women than in men. (Witelson et al 3418-3428 ). Some suggestion that the shape and complexities in the brain have more to do with intelligence rather than the brain size.
Adoption negates the differences in environmental factors. Adoption studies have enabled scientists to study the effect of nature versus nurture. Studies on Vietnamese children who grew up in White Americans’ homes showed that they had a 10 points lead over their white counterparts. However, Blacks and Coloreds (black-white) children adopted to White-Americans homes achieved lower scores as compared to White children in the same homes.
A different study, “The Minnesota trans-racial adoption study” carried heavier weight since it included follow up reviews. By comparing the IQ over two stages of growth, they found that the evidence of genetic link grew more apparent with time. Through analysis scores of the biological children of adopting parents, they were able to ascertain that the child raring skills had negligible impact on the outcome.
The class scores and aptitude test performance proved that growing up in a white environment led to minimal or short-lived improvement in the IQ. The average black American rates 85 points, 10 higher that the sub-Saharan counterparts. Genetic estimates posit that the genetic composition of Black Americans is made up of 20-25% Whites genetic traits.
The mixed race in South Africa averages higher than their black peers-not because of preferential treatment as shown in the Minnesota Study. Supporting views from Bean( p 354-432) showed that Lighter Sinned Blacks had the larger brain weight than Dark Skinned Blacks. When parents with high IQ mate the IQ of their off-springs rate lower than those of the parents.
This genetic theory predicts that the IQ of off-springs inclines towards the average for the population. The main attribute to this is that parents pass a fraction of their genes. However it has been observed that the regression magnitude is higher in Blacks than in Whites with averages of 85 and 100 respectively (Jensen& Rushton 21-36) .The incidence of Light-Skinned Blacks has been observed to positively affect the IQ ratings both in Sub-Saharan countries and America (Lynn365-375 ).
On average Blacks mature faster than all races at all stages of life. Right from birth, Blacks are a step ahead-learning to walk earlier, attaining sexual maturity and activity earlier as well as aging faster. Thus they start experiencing life situations earlier than any other race. However this is not supported by IQ test performance.
Studies on family characteristics are geared towards showing effect of nurture to the IQ. The inseparability of genetic factors from environmental factors has faulted most studies. The idea that they are not additive and that they work in estrangement has not been confirmed true. Turkheimer et al( 623-628) found close relation on heritability of genes differs with the socioeconomic factors.
Similarity of IQ ratings between parents and off-springs has also been investigated. Transmission levels have been observed with those families living below the poverty line having low transmission rates while wealthier families show higher rates for heritability. Other factor affecting heritability were nutrition, access to educational facilities, and quality of ecological factors. As observed in the Milwaukee study, guardians in low socio-economic class exhibited poor child-rearing skills and lack of social skills necessary for child upbringing as observed by Heber in 1967.
Unavailability of social amenities is also a factor which affects health, propensity towards drug taking and poor nutrition. Prevalence of drug abuse in slums aver the world supports this. The close relation between IQ and economic capabilities translated to low IQ ratings among most individuals in socio-economic crisis.
Africa is the land of comfort in addition to being the cradle of humanity (Tiskcoff et al1380 –1387). Having evolved in harsh climates,Whites and Asians were met with conditions, which only allowed the survival of the fittest. cognitively demanding scenarios led to development of larger brains, slower maturation rates and other characteristics. From their findings Asians were first to migrate, evolving culturally thus they developed competencies and skills to survive in the harsh climate (Tishkoff et al 1380-1387). Adverse weather and climatic conditions observed in the marginal tips of the hemisphere have contributed to the survival of the fittest culminating from the need to raise children feed,shelter and clothing .
After abolishment of racial, segregation it was postulated the inequality in IQ ratings would contract. However, over the past decades, intervention measures have not sufficed. Head Start programs instituted sustained some gains in retention and graduation only in Whites. Adjustments in socioeconomic position only led to minimal improvement in the gap. However Flynn (171-191) in his hypothesis, the Flynn theory, proposed that the current improvement in ratings in IQ for some countries has risen marginally creating a path line for the diminishing of the gap.
The question of testability of race genetically was affirmed by Risch,(408-411). In his study, comparison of experimental genetic composition found 0.14% deviation of the checked physical position. Coroners have been able to determine race accurately from the skeleton or DNA samples from bodily specimen. Black individuals who possess white genes have been correctly singed out from samples in experimental studies (Risch, 408-411).
Ogbu (241–278) found out that displaced members of a social grouping tended to under perform the rest of the group which was not displaced. However the prevailing environmental resources greatly impact the performance. A comparison between African American and Sub-Saharan Africans concurs with this finding. Due to higher resource endowment in America (living standards) Black Americans have a 10-point lead.
The Flynn effect has shown that environmental factors can can improve IQ despite the fact that no one has proved its relation to genetics. School performance can be attributed to the environment. Children living in war-torn countries have experience traumatizing experiences which may consume their mental capacity. For such children, it is harder to keep up with nutritional standards, consistently go to school as well as have sufficient upbringing.
In the adoption studies Rushton(7-20) compared IQs of black children raised by white families and those raised by black families. Rushton (768–776) reported that there was no difference in the IQ ratings attributable to the environment. However, Moore (317-326) reported that black children adopted into white families had higher IQ means (117 points) compared to those raised by middle class or black families.
It was observed that white parents were more likely to interpose in the children’s social skills in a manner which improved their IQ. Moore (317-326) also found that White Mothers were more appurtenant and forgiving of misdeeds. Black Mothers were found to be harsh and vituperative when children digressed. A point to note was the effect of upbringing on the child’s IQ rating. Self confidence occurring from good upbring accrues higher mental abilities to the children.
Similarly, as observed in the Hawthorne Steel Plant by Elton Mayo pointed out the increased output observed in the workforce due increased interest in their life, the IQ ratings could be attribute o increased interest in their life. The prevailing conditions bore no impact on IQ but the fact that they were under observation could have contributed.
However, it can also be used by individuals for political agenda. Genetic correlation in behavior would nullify the measures taken to curb the behavioral excess observed in society.
Social factors, especially in America in terms of racism and poverty have contributed to variation in excellence in certain spheres.
Sampling factors have been raised in relation to use of test results used in such studies . Other forms of competencies impact an individual’s performance-memory, mechanical expertise, vocabulary. Most tests on intelligence do not dwell on the adaptive skills or the ability to learn. Instead they concentrate of past learning which is subject to environment, motivation and chance (Steinberg &Grigorenko 401– 418 ). Sternberg(401– 418) faulted IQ tests on both their calibration of intelligence and on the standardization of abilities being measured.
Measures of crystallized and fluid abilities suffer from different magnitudes of cultural and environmental effects (Sternberg 401– 418) Thus style of schooling (contemporary or liberalized) goes a long way to determining the implicit features of every human being.
The educational level of parents plays an important in the total development of a child including IQ. A study done in in Scotland Hart et al (623-639) observed some characteristics. Higher education and social class in the off-springs was associated with higher IQ in the parents.
A recent study has shown that air pollution, widely believed to cause cardiovascular and breathing disorders in babies , actually contributed to degradation of intelligence in off-springs (Baker 2009). Youngsters in New York have been fund to have a 4-point lag in IQ compared to those from cleaner cities. Much of the aerial pollution is composed of lead. In the study Dr. Ferera suggested that parents could salvage the situation through breastfeeding or a diet rich in fish oils.
A strong link has been suggested between breastfeeding and higher IQ ratings. Increase in IQ was marked in all cases of sustained breastfeeding during the study at kings college. However a specific allele present in some individuals was observed to contribute to higher ratings(Wright 18860-18865).
Malnourished students perform poorer than their counterparts. In a study in Guatemala, undernourished preschoolers placed on protein-rich diet showed significant IQ difference than those who did not (Pollitt, 1-99). However the study is faulted on the motivation and social factors related to malnutrition.
Of key to note is presence of inorganic pollution among impoverished neighborhoods. Children from such environments portray lower scores in IQ testing. Children living in areas having high concentration of lead pollution tended towards retardation and poor mental capabilities.
However no specific observations have been tested in relation to toxic effects. On the other hand, conditions resulting from drug use during pregnancy has been observed to affect the attention and memory levels of a child as well as the IQ (Streissguth 3-11). Similar results were observed in relation to birth weight and length of breastfeeding. Low birth weight is known to affect the health of the child and immunity. Due to socio-economic factors, low weight births in low class has been observed to have more adverse effects than in affluent areas.
The definition of human intelligence has been left in the hands of scientists. Despite the numerous models to quantify it, none of them has been able to pinpoint the genetic link in intelligence. The findings observed in relation to environmental factors are key to designing intervention policies. The greatest challenge to all these is the widely accepted testing methods which are not used in totality, thus may portray skewed results.
The overemphasis on use of testing in determining intelligence of an individual has been marred with controversy due to inability to reach a consensus on the standardized form of testing. The data used in most studies above to gauge the intelligence level in the guise of IQ suffers from the same set back. The finding hereby postulated have been widely propagated as scientific and th point of convergence for individuals. Their use in profiling ability and competence has been met with criticism.
In the social setting, politicizing racial profiling has for long affected the social placing of certain individuals and well as being used to undermine them. On the other hand, the debate over high IQ scores has always been glorified. However those who rate highest are known to excel in all walks of life including designing sophisticated weaponry, and planning deadly terrorist missions. Such socially degraded outcomes are arguably more harmful than poor job performance associated with low IQ. Lynn (365–375.) criticized the opinion of the studies as being skewed towards the source of funding.
A fact we cannot deny is the genetic link between parents and their off-springs. The heritability of certain features is not a conclusive indication that intelligence levels in terms of IQ are hereditary since the environmental factors play an important role. Thus with genetics contributing to elements of race and intelligence, the correlation between genetic and race cannot be fully denied. Since it is not possible to fully isolate an individual from the environment, the correlation will remain an opinion until science proves otherwise in a conclusive manner.