auditing quality, earning management, auditing fees, auditor opinion-Essay

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Hello.
I have attached fill that have the introduction of the subject and some articles.
NOTES
Please follow the instructure
LITERATURE REVIEW SHOULD BE MORE THAN 1400 WORDS.
Please in methodology use auditing fees, opinion for 2011 . Also in order to get better proposal your amended and justify on my writing would be highly appreciated.
Kind regards
Introduction:
Over the recent years, countries worldwide have experienced the financial crisis, which is the latest event that have played a vital role on increasing the interest in the quality of audit internationally, the integrity of corporate governance and financial reporting.
The problem in the quality of accounting information has also increased expectations of further regulation in the banking sector which may well impact on reporting, auditing and governance outside this sector. National regulatory systems are increasingly interconnected with supranational private sector standard setting bodies, such as the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) and governmental bodies such as the European Union (EU) (e.g., Cooper and Robson, 2006: 430(
However, the confidence on audit quality was not just a problem in the US. As Andersen was an international firm, audit clients and regulators in many other countries were affected. Ensuring that the rest firms generate high quality accounting information in the future was seen as priority to guarantee that no other firms fail on producing high quality auditing. Therefore many changes to the regulatory regime for auditors were also made in other jurisdictions including the EU and the UK. Following a government review (CGAA, 2003), in order to ensure major changes in the UK included the restructuring of the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) which took responsibility for setting auditing standards, setting ethical standards for auditors and conducting independent inspections of public interest audits. The review also included changes to the UK Combined Code for Corporate Governance requiring much closer engagement between the audit committee of a company and its auditors, thus creating a much more significant role for the audit committee chair (ACC) in the audit process (FRC, 2003).
The objective of the paper
The objective of this paper is to investigate the affect of auditing quality on earning management? Also the study aim to determine what is the relationship between auditing fees and the auditing quality in UK; finally, this study examines the association between the quality of audit on financial reporting quality and determine the relation between external audit fees and opinion and auditing quality,
In order to there are main point that has to be determined:
Firstly: – Identifying what is auditing quality? And investigate the effect of auditor opinion on auditing quality?
Secondly: determine if there any association between the auditing quality, and the influence on earning management.
Thirdly: determine the relationship between earnings management and audit quality.

2. Literature review
1.1 Audit quality:
Audit quality is the combined probability that the current material error is being identified and reported by auditors (DeAngelo, 1981). Recently, the FRC (2006b) considered how to identify the drivers of promote audit quality and audit quality. The definition of audit quality is lack of clear and agreed identification , the FRC states a key definition presented by the AIU (FRC, 2006b: 19): ‘Undertaking a quality audit involves obtaining sufficient and appropriate audit evidence to support the conclusions on which the audit report is based and making objective and appropriate audit judgments. A quality audit [also] involves appropriate and complete reporting by the auditors which enables the Audit Committee and the Board properly to discharge their responsibilities.’
Titman, and Trueman (1986) introduced the quality of auditing as reliability and strength of the information that is provided to stakeholders after auditing.
The measures and guidelines for the of the auditor’s quality and performance are set forth in generally accepted auditing standards, for example as, independence, exercise and competence of professional care. Noticeably, the qualities consider the performance of auditor is multi-dimensional as set forth in the auditing standards and differences in audit quality are to be expected. ‘Audit quality differences result in variation in the earnings quality of their audit and in credibility that the auditors offer. Due to auditor quality is inherently unobservant and multidimensional, there is no single characteristic of auditor can be used to proxy for quality’ (Balsam et al., 2003: 71). Since there are several factors may be affect audit quality, it is not surprising that researchers have used various measures to proxy for audit quality in prior studies.
Please complete it on time and do not heisted to contact if you have any questions.

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A critical evaluation and review of the concept and application of the Tableau de bord, and its uses in contemporary performance management and control -Essay

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(( I NEED IT AS A FORMAL REPORT PLEASE ))
(( an introduction, main findings, conclusions, recommendations and reference list attached ))

The Balanced Scorecard was developed by US academics Kaplan and Norton in the 1990s in response to a need to broaden the criteria used by organisations to manage and control their performance. The Balanced scorecard was created because, at the time it was recognised that many of the criteria which contributed to the success of an organisation were “soft” qualitative in nature rather than quantitative or financial.

Hence the balanced scorecard uses a range of measures to evaluate performance from four different perspectives identified by Kaplan and Norton. This was seen by many to be a revolutionary approach to performance measurement and control, however the real “trail blazer” in relation to this topic was the France, who decades earlier had developed the iconic “Tableau de bord”, which is widely used throughout the country, but is little known elsewhere.

You are required to undertake a review and evaluation of the research that has been undertaken in relation to both the Balanced scorecard and the Tableau de bord and the contribution each model has made to modern business management, identifying examples of real world “good practice”.

Tasks:

Write a management report (1,800 words maximum) to:

1. Critically appraise and evaluate both the Balanced scorecard and the Tableau de bord, identifying the performance criteria used in each of the two models.

2. Identify key performance criteria which you consider would be useful in relation to each of the two methods, stating which of the two methods should be considered “best practice” and why.

3. Draw, based on your critical analysis and appraisal, appropriate conclusions and recommendations for both profit and not for profit organisations.

4. Make a brief presentation based on the findings of you analysis and content of your report.

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Taxations -Coursework

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Assessment requirements
For this assessment you are required to:
1. Calculate the income tax and all of the national insurance consequences of the employment
opportunity. This will require you to:
a. Calculate the value of any benefits in kind and allowable deductions
b. If any benefits are not taxable, to explicitly state which and why not
2. Calculate the income tax and national insurance consequences of the self-employment
opportunity. This will require you to:
a. Adjust the projected net profit for non-deductible expenses, stating clearly why
these are not allowable for tax purposes.
b. Calculate capital allowances on the motor vehicle and furniture
c. Calculate the deduction available in respect of the lease premium payment
3. Prepare a memorandum offering advice to Graham based on your calculations. This should
include:
a. Any further tax considerations not included in your calculations
b. Any non-tax considerations that you consider to be relevant to Graham’s decision
c. Consider and explain which of the two alternatives you consider to be financially
better, including a comparison of his net income taking account of his tax, Nic,
pension contributions and any other items that you consider should be adjusted in
making a reasonable comparison.
d. Any uncertainties in your advice, including a list of further information you feel you
require
e. The memorandum should not exceed 1500 words

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BALANCED SCORECARD (BSC)- Research Paper

APA 5
Details:
Research the topic (BALANCED SCORE CARD) and write a 6 page research paper on it. This paper should include what your topic is and what it is trying to convey, among other things. You should have at least 5 references for the paper. Professional journals in accounting would include Accounting Horizons, Journal of Accounting Research, Strategic Finance, The Journal of Accountancy, or something comparable. The paper should be Times New Roman, double spaced, 1″ and APA style. Please use a Word document in Rich Text.

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ASB-3212 Taxation 2012/13 – Essay

Assignment question
In 2006 the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) set-up a major review of the UK tax system known as the Mirrlees review, named after its chairperson, Sir James Mirrlees. The review was formally announced in 2008 and was published in two volumes.It suggested a number of improvements to the tax system.
One of its recommendations was the possibility of merging the benefit and income tax systems into one system, and is discussed in the second volume of the review entitled ‘Tax by Design’.
Requirement:
1. Read chapter 5 entitled ‘Integrating Personal Taxes and Benefits’ (pp. 122 – 147)from the second volume of the Mirrlees review. A copy of the second volume can be found on Blackboard in the ‘Assignments’ folder.
A full copy of the report (volumes one and two) can be found by following the link below, but this is for information only and you are not required to read both volumes for the purposes of the assignment:
http://www.ifs.org.uk/mirrleesReview
2. Evaluate the recommendation to integrate both the benefit and income tax systems into one system (as described in chapter 5). Your evaluation should include:
a) A description of the current system (benefit and income tax systems in general);
b) a description of the proposed recommendation;
c) the purpose for merging both systems;
d) your opinion on the strengths and weaknesses of such action; and
e) a description and explanation of the type of potential winners and losers of such a move (certain groups of individuals and/or organisations).

Additional marks will be provided for:
i. Strength of your evaluation;
ii. other relevant points made by you as part of your evaluation;
iii. inclusion of relevant theories and concepts to support your work; and
iv. use of referencing to other academic research relevant to this particular topic.
Word count: maximum 2,000 words (not including bibliography)
Due date for submitting hardcopy and for submitting a copy via Turnitin:22 March 2013

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Tax Research Memo -Research Paper

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Tax Research Memo Instructions
ACCT 538

You are to prepare a tax research memo regarding the following fact pattern. Your memo should include four sections: Facts, Issues, Conclusion, Discussion. A sample research memo is located in your text and additional information can be found at www2.gsu.edu/~accerl/. Your memo should be 1-2 pages, single spaced. You will need to cite primary authority in your memo. Your assignment will be screened through TurnItIn, so all sources should be cited. You are to work on this assignment individually. This assignment is subject to the Academic Honesty Policy.

Whitney and Ed North are avid antiques collectors. They regularly attend garage sales and flea markets and purchase lots of old stuff. In 2010, they purchased a very old desk for $600. The desk was in poor shape and required rehabilitation. It sat in their garage for more than a year. Whitney was taking the desk apart when she found an old document jammed into a dark recess of the desk. She opened the document and much to her surprise she had found a very old copy of the Declaration of Independence.

Whitney was very excited by the discovery of this historical treasure. She and Ed contacted Sotheby’s, the auction house, to get an appraisal for the document. In December 2011, Sotheby’s authenticated and appraised the document at $1,350,000. In April of 2012, the document was auctioned by Sotheby’s and fetched $1,650,000 net of fees and commissions. Whitney and Ed received the money in May of 2012.

Your manager asked you to prepare a research memo indicating how Whitney and Ed should treat the discovery of this document for tax purposes. Specifically, you should indicate the following:
• Do they have taxable income?
• If so, when do they have taxable income and what amount?
• What is the character of any income?

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Accounting -Coursework

Order Description

please see attachment.

It should only take two page just as the last assignment please complete the assignment and notify me via email if there are any issues.

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Intermediate Accounting -Essay

Please read below and answer completely:

6-4. “Income Smoothing and an IPO”

You are an analyst for an investment fund that invests in initial public offerings (IPOs). You are looking at the financial statements of 2 companies, Clark Company and Durfee Company, that plan to go public soon. Net income for the past 3 years for the 2 companies has been as follows (in thousands):

Year Clark Durfee
Net Income Net Income

2005………………………….. $10,000 $17,000
2006………………………….. $14,000 $1,000
2007………………………….. $20,000 $26,000

If both companies issue the same number of shares and if the initial share prices are the same, which of the 2 companies appear to be a more attractive investment? Explain your reasoning. What alternate sources of data would you look at to find out whether the reported earnings amount accurately portray the business performance of these 2 companies over the past 3 years?

6-8. “If It Isn’t Fraud, Then It’s Ethical”

Cruella DeVil is the chief financial officer (CFO) of a local publicly traded company. She was recently invited to speak to accounting students at the local university. One of the students asked Cruella whether she thought earnings management was ethical. Cruella laughed and responded that her view was that anything that was not explicitly prohibited by the accounting standards or by government regulations was ethical. What do you think of Cruella’s opinion?

6-11. “I Didn’t Do It on Purpose!”

You are a senior staff member in the office of the Chief Accountant of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). You have been supervising a case brought against and audit firm. The audit client used a non-GAAP accounting practices that allowed it to report annual earnings of $47.3 million instead of a loss of $15.0 million. Earnings in the past 3 years averaged $10 million per year. The auditor explains that this non-GAAP accounting practice was not detected during the audit because of innocent mistakes made by staff auditors. Your thorough investigation has not turned up any evidence that the audit firm intentionally allowed the client to use this non-GAAP practice. You must decide whether formally sanction the audit firm or whether to drop the case because of lack of evidence of wrongful intent. What should you do?

6-15. “Loading Up the Cookie Jar!”

Lily Company has historically reported a bad debt expense amount of between 1% and 4% of sales. The percentage for any given year is a function of both the business conditions for the year and whether recent experience suggests that the estimates in past years have been too high or too low. For example, if estimates in past years have been too high, a lower amount of bad debt expense is recognized in the current year. Lily Company’s board of directors has met to review the preliminary financial statements for the just-completed fiscal year. Assume that the board will decide on a bad debt estimate of wither 1% or 4% of sales. Consider the following two scenarios:

Scenario 1: The preliminary earnings number for the year is very high, far higher than expected. However, Lily’s board is concerned about future years; there is some indication of unsettled business conditions ahead.

Scenario 2: The preliminary earnings number for the year is quite low, lower than expected. The board has a reason to be optimistic that Lily’s operating performance will turn around next year.

What estimate (1% or 4%) do you think Lily’s board will choose in each of the 2 scenarios? Explain your choices. What risks are there to Lily Company if the bad debt estimate is chosen using only the type of information given here?

6-20. “GAAP Is a Point, Not an Oval!”

You are the chief financial officer (CFO) of Lorien Company, which is publicly traded. At the annual shareholder’s meeting you discussed the company’s recent reported results. As part of the presentation, you illustrated the minimum and maximum values for net income that Lorien could have reported using a range of accounting assumptions other companies in your industry use. Your statement prompted a cry of outrage from one of the shareholders present at the meeting, who accused you of being an unprincipled liar. This shareholder stated that any suggestion that there is a range of possible net income values for given company in a given year indicates an overly liberal approach to financial reporting. This shareholder has moved that your employment contract be immediately terminated because of an apparent lack of moral character. The shareholder’s arguments have been persuasive to a large number of people at the meeting. What can you say to defend yourself?

Abercrombie & Fitch-Essay

Financial Statements

Income Statement:

1. Is the format most similar to a single-step or multi-step format?
2. Determine gross profit, income from operations, and net income for the past two years and comment on the trend.

Balance sheet:

1. Show that Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders’ Equity for the past two years.

Statement of Cash Flows:

1. Are cash flows from operations more or less than net income for each of the past two years?
2. What is the company?s main investing activity? (Cash Outflows)
3. What is the company’s most important source of financing? (Cash Inflows)
4. Overall, has cash increased or decreased over the past two years?

D. Accounting Policies

1. The first footnote in the annual report should state significant accounting policies. What are the significant accounting policies, if any, relating to revenue recognition, cash, merchandise inventories, and property and equipment depreciation?
2. List several of the topics of the other footnotes to the financial statements.
3. Would any of the information in the footnotes change your opinion of the company?

Sampling methodologies IN AUDITING-Research Paper

Details:
The paper should be 6-8 (double-spaced) pages long (for highest grades, closer to 8), excluding pages associated with title pages or bibliography. Please do not include an executive summary or an abstract. In other words the body of the paper should be 6-8 pages (1 inch margins – 12 pt. font – Times New Roman or Arial). The paper should be documented using an APA or MLA (in-text parenthetical) documentation style. A paperback reference for APA would be nice to have, although there are online sources of information about APA. I was put in a strange situation recently when a student told me that (although the documentation seemed to be flawed) their source came from a handout from a past class (which one?) or some particular online source (where?). So, let me say that the best source of information for documentation guidelines is:
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition,
http://www.apastyle.org/manual/index.aspx (also see tutorials to the right)
OR – For FREE (!!) at:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Please use one of the two resources above for additional information about the APA
Documentation style.

The paper should be substantially based on at least three articles from professional journals. Professional journals in accounting would include Accounting Horizons, Journal of Accounting Research, Strategic
Finance, The Journal of Accountancy, or something comparable. You can also use other professional journals, such as the Journal of Marketing, the Journal of Marketing Management, the Journal of
Management Information Systems, or the Journal of Information Systems. The three principal journal articles referenced in the paper should be copied and turned in with the paper. In addition, feel free to include other research sources. Other important sources include professional documents at websites used formally for accounting (FASB, IASB, AAA, AICPA, etc.). You should have a minimum of five sources in total, but you may include as many as you wish. The objective of the paper, apart from the obvious coverage of the topic area, should be to INTEGRATE the information provided in the research sources.
You should not go through a page and a half or two pages continuously citing the same source. In most classes, the assigned paper is longer. I would rather sacrifice some length and emphasize a good
SYNTHESIS of the sources into a well-written, coherent document.
Remember that if the words of the author are used exactly, quote and include a parenthetical reference. If the words of the author are paraphrased, do not quote but include a parenthetical reference.

Spelling and punctuation are PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT. If you have one or two spelling or grammar errors, I’ll chalk it up to being human – no problem. If you have 5 or more spelling or grammar errors, your grade will suffer one or more (probably more) letter grade deductions. You should have several other people (pick them carefully!) proofread your paper before you hand it in. If you are concerned about the propriety of your topic, please feel free to e-mail me or call me at home. Point deductions of (5-10 each) will be made for not following other instructions above (for example – not APA, not PDF, not three sources, and for each page missing (less than six pages). If everyone follows the research paper requirements, additional learning occurs about meaningful topics and writing skills are enhanced as a part of the process.