Application of "PREPARE" model’s steps for planned change process in macro practice
Read the following case vignette and answer the subsequent questions using each step of the PREPARE process. Feel free to add creative ideas and solutions to each phase of the decision-making process (5 pages minimum).
(Case example is organization focused>)
CASE EXAMPLE: You are a social worker for Shatterproof County Department of Social Services in the Public Assistance Division. Shatterproof is a huge urban county populated primarily by people of color. Following the demise of TANF your agency is struggling to adapt to new policies, regulations, and requirements concerning the distribution of clients’ needed resources. You and your colleagues are working to adjust and conform to new expectations. However, that is not the immediate focus of your concern.In working for the county these past three years, you have become increasingly disturbed about the way many workers treat clients, most of whom are women of color. You feel that workers are pressured to process clients through the problem-solving process as quickly as possible and that too little emphasis is placed on client empowerment. Empowerment is the “process of increasing personal, interpersonal, or political power so that individuals can take action to improve their life situations” (Gutierrez, 1995, p. 205). You feel strongly that if workers assumed an empowerment-oriented approach, more clients would be able to gain control of the solutions to their own problems. Such an approach might involve teaching workers how to focus on empowerment approaches and techniques, including “accepting the client’s definition of the problem,” “identifying and building upon existing strengths,” engaging in a realistic assessment of the client’s power in her personal situation, “teaching specific skills” (such as “skills for community or organizational change; life skills,” such as parenting, job seeking, and self-defense; and interpersonal skills, such as assertiveness, social competency, and self-advocacy”), and “mobilizing resources and advocating for clients” (Gutierrez, 1995, pp. 208-10).
So you begin to wonder what you might be able to do about this situation. Clients ought to be allowed more input into the definition and solution of their problems, but workers are not as receptive to clients as they should be. Adopting an empowerment approach could greatly help in successfully implementing the new public assistance programs. Of course, this is not the agency’s only problem. Workers are overly burdened with paperwork, and computers and programs are already outdated. Nevertheless, in your mind empowerment remains the dominant issue. You think social workers, supervisors, and administrators should be educated about empowerment issues and trained to implement empowerment approaches in practice. Emphasis should be placed on both empowerment values and skills. How can you increase awareness and implementation of a philosophy of empowerment in your huge agency? Upper-level administrators seem to inhabit some unreachable plan. There are only so many hours in your workday. What are your options? Can you start small by trying to reach workers in your own unit? (There are seven of you who report to one supervisor.) Can you initiate training for yourself and the other six workers in your unit?
Will the unit and the agency accept an empowerment approach? What factors will help you and what will hinder you? What will training the unit staff cost? The agency may have some funding available to provide in-service training for workers, because it does require every worker to complete continuing education units (CEUs) on a regular basis. As a matter of fact, you have a flier announcing an empowerment training seminar led by an expert in the field. You also know of a social work professor in the local university who might be able to do some training or to refer you to someone who can. What would that cost? Is there any possibility of getting volunteers to do the training on a limited basis?
Are there other potential barriers to training besides cost? Certainly the agency’s CEU requirements are in your favor. Although the agency is in some turmoil due to new programs and requirements, it seems there has always been some degree of hubbub. That’s really nothing new. Training a single unit is a relatively small task. Ideally, you’d like to include the entire agency, but that’s something to think about in the future. You can think of no one outside the agency who would actively oppose your plan.
Do you think you can “pull off” such a project, even though training programs aren’t in your job description? What personal characteristics will work to your advantage in the process? For example, are you capable, responsible, and/or assertive? Do you have exceptionally strong communication or negotiation skills? On the other hand, what weaknesses do you have that might act against a successful change process? For example, is it difficult for you to ask for things? Do you consider yourself shy or lacking in confidence?
Your colleague and friend Ortrude has some difficulties organizing and following through on details, but she usually speaks up for anything she believes in. Maybe you can win her support. There is also Virgilia, a hard-working, responsible worker who usually keeps her opinions to herself. You don’t feel you know her very well, but she might be in favor of your idea. On the downside, there’s your colleague and non-friend Bentley who typically “pooh-poohs” any innovative idea.
The agency’s voluntary In-service Training Committee suggests and plans training for various agency units, so you will have to approach its members, and they might be supportive—even though their funding is limited and fluctuating. Since you don’t personally know any committee members, you have no natural “in.”
As to people in the community, you’ve already established that at least one expert is available (though you don’t know what her fee would be) and that the professor at the university is another possibility.
What about your own position and how initiating such a project might affect you both professionally and personally. Your supervisor Astral is a “laid-back” type who generally gets her work done in a leisurely fashion. (Actually, you think she’s kind of “spacey.”) She is not someone to depend upon for high-powered consultations or for strong support for this initiative. On the other hand, if you’re willing to do the work yourself, she will probably approve the project and send it up for higher level authorization. All agency in-service training must be approved by the agency’s Assistant Director, Harvey. You think Harvey, a scrooge-like accountant at heart, is more likely to approve such a plan if it isn’t extremely costly.
1. Answer the following questions with respect to this case example.
Step 1: Identify Problems to Address
Substep 1.1: Evaluate the potential for macro level intervention.
Discuss the seriousness of the identified problem situation in the case example above. In your own words, describe what you see as the core issue(s).
Substep 1.2: Define and prioritize the problems you’ve identified in the case example. Substep 1.3: Translate problems into needs.
Substep 1.4: Determine which need or needs you will address if you are in this worker’s situation.
Step 2: Review Your Macro and Personal Reality
Substep 2.1: Evaluate the organizational and other macro variables potentially working for or against you in the macro change process as portrayed in the above case example. Fill out Figure 5.3, then explain the reasons for your responses below.
To what extent are you I danger of(1) losing your job, (2) decreasing your potential for upward mobility, (3) seriously straining work relationships?
Explain the reasons for your responses.
Substep 2.2: Assess your personal reality that is, the strengths and weaknesses that may act for or against a successful change effort. Exercise 5.1 may help you with this question.
Step 3: Establish Primary Goals
List the goals you would pursue if you were in the position described above.
Step 4: Identify Relevant People of Influence
In the following figure, list individuals and groups both inside and outside of the agency.
Give a brief explanation of your choices.
Step 5: Assess Potential Financial Costs and Potential Benefits to Clients and Agency
Use the case example in your response.
Step 6: Review Professional and Personal Risk
Could you lose your job, decrease your potential for upward mobility, and/or seriously strain your work relationships?
Step 7: Evaluate the Potential Success of a Macro Change Process
Substep 7.1: Review(and summarize) the prior PREPARE process, and weigh the pros and cons of proceeding with the macro change process.
Client need (see Step 1):
Positive organizational and other macro variables (see Step 2):
Your own strengths (see Step 2):
Potential support (see Step 4):
Financial benefits (see Step 5):
Negative organizational and other macro variables (see step 2):
Your own weaknesses (see Step 2):
Potential resistance (see Step 4):
Financial costs (see Step 5):
Your risks (see Step 6):
Substep 7.2: Identify possible macro approaches to use in the case example and determine how you would proceed (that is, continue the macro change process, postpone it, or drop the whole idea).
PAPER SHOULD BE WRITTEN BASED ON THIS CASE STUDY. APA FORMAT. DO NOT WRITE IN FIRST PERSON SINGULAR. ACTIVATE YOUR CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS USING the “PREPARE” model.
The paper should be written in proper essay format, including complete sentences and paragraphs, a clear introduction laying out the argument and thesis, a conclusion, and a carefully explained and organized argument. References should follow an accepted style, and be consistent. Essays should use proper grammar and should be carefully spell-checked. Include your TA’s name and tutorial number on the title page, and make sure to staple the essay (no binders or folders). Keep a backup of the essay, rough work and notes.
Late penalty: 2%/day (unless accompanied by appropriate documentation)
Essays should draw on the following: 1. two course readings; 2. one academic source from outside the course that you find through library research (either a scholarly book [NOT a textbook] or academic journal article); 3. and one or more credible non-academic sources (NOT Wikipedia). For research help, see the ‘Spark’ pages on the York Library website. This is the minimum number of sources required; you can use more sources when warranted.
The outside research will be especially useful in helping you develop the case study. The non-academic online source will generally be a text that you will analyze using the academic concepts from the course and your academic research. For example, if you are doing a study of ‘ideology’ (topic 1), you may choose to analyze the ideology(ies) of a newspaper article, movie, TV program, or other media text.
Note on case studies
Each of the topics below asks you to develop a ‘case study.’ What this means is that you should find a media example or case that illustrates and helps you explore a specific concept or approach. Frequently used case studies in lectures in this way. For example, in the first lecture you spent some time on the case study of Ferguson and the killing of Michael Brown to help explain communication studies approaches. What case study you select is up to you. It can be something that you’ve discovered in your research, or can come from ideas in the course readings.
Develop an essay that addresses one of the following topics. Make sure to address all of the issues being used. Make use of the ideas and approaches developed in the course, including any relevant ones from other weeks in the course. Theoretical approaches or concepts are especially useful in this respect.
1. Explain what is meant by the term ‘ideology’ and its significance for media and communication studies. Develop a specific case study showing an ideology at work in the media, and discuss the extent to which alternatives to this ideology exist. In selecting a case study, keep in mind the various ideologies we have looked at, in particular (but not only) deeply rooted ideologies of gender, race, nation/nationalism, capitalism, or religion.
2. Communication studies approaches to ‘popular culture’ tend to argue that audiences are active participants in using or consuming media. Develop a specific case study through which to explore the role of the audience in popular culture. To what extent does this case study confirm the view that the audience is ‘active’?
3. Feminist communication research argues that media is shaped in many different ways by gendered social relations and inequalities. Select a case study of the gendered nature of media through which to explore one or more feminist approaches to media studies. In developing your argument, address one or more of the following aspects of the media in relation to gender: as an industry; who works in media; media representations; the use of media (ie. audiences).
4. Advertising is crucial to the functioning of a market system, but many analysts also argue that it gives rise to problems, including a) the creation of ‘false needs,’ b) over consumption, and c) the propagation of dominant ideologies. Through the analysis of a specific case study, explore each of these critiques of advertising.
5. (alternate advertising question) Market segmentation is central to the way in which audiences are targeted as consumers. Through the exploration of one ad or advertising campaign, analyze how this market segmentation works in practice. The essay should include: a) a semiotic analysis of one advertisement; b) a discussion of the ideology or ideologies at work in the advertisement or campaign.
Understanding of the course material and ability to explain and use the sources effectively; selection of relevant outside sources.
Clarity of presentation (see ‘essay format’ above). Especially important is a clear overall argument, supported by evidence, and taking into consideration the different and often competing arguments offered by the authors.
Effective application of relevant course concepts to your case study.
Originality of thinking.
Case Study 1
Springfield Express is a luxury passenger carrier in Texas. All seats are first class, and the following data are available:
Number of seats per passenger train car 90
Average load factor (percentage of seats filled) 70%
Average full passenger fare $ 160
Average variable cost per passenger $ 70
Fixed operating cost per month $3,150,000
a. What is the break-even point in passengers and revenues per month?
b. What is the break-even point in number of passenger train cars per month?
c. If Springfield Express raises its average passenger fare to $ 190, it is estimated that the average load factor will decrease to 60 percent. What will be the monthly break-even point in number of passenger cars?
d. (Refer to original data.) Fuel cost is a significant variable cost to any railway. If crude oil increases by $ 20 per barrel, it is estimated that variable cost per passenger will rise to $ 90. What will be the new break-even point in passengers and in number of passenger train cars?
e. Springfield Express has experienced an increase in variable cost per passenger to $ 85 and an increase in total fixed cost to $ 3,600,000. The company has decided to raise the average fare to $ 205. If the tax rate is 30 percent, how many passengers per month are needed to generate an after-tax profit of $ 750,000?
f. (Use original data). Springfield Express is considering offering a discounted fare of $ 120, which the company believes would increase the load factor to 80 percent. Only the additional seats would be sold at the discounted fare. Additional monthly advertising cost would be $ 180,000. How much pre-tax income would the discounted fare provide Springfield Express if the company has 50 passenger train cars per day, 30 days per month?
g. Springfield Express has an opportunity to obtain a new route that would be traveled 20 times per month. The company believes it can sell seats at $ 175 on the route, but the load factor would be only 60 percent. Fixed cost would increase by $ 250,000 per month for additional personnel, additional passenger train cars, maintenance, and so on. Variable cost per passenger would remain at $ 70.
1. Should the company obtain the route?
2. How many passenger train cars must Springfield Express operate to earn pre-tax income of $ 120,000 per month on this route?
3. If the load factor could be increased to 75 percent, how many passenger train cars must be operated to earn pre-tax income of $ 120,000 per month on this route?
4. What qualitative factors should be considered by Springfield Express in making its decision about acquiring this route?
The student is Asperger�s Disorder Zack, Age 8.
When directed by a teacher to work with peers, Zack escapes working with peers by disrupting the class
In this paper you need to: Apply measurement, data display, and data-based decisions to effectively change human behavior.
Explain the process of measurement you will use to analyze your case study. In your explanation, take into consideration environmental variables, available resources, and behavior of interest relevant to your case study.
Remember, applied behavior analysts measure behavior to answer questions about the existence and nature of functional relations between socially significant behavior and environmental variables.
Select an appropriate form of visual display of behavioral data (choose from line graphs, bar graphs, cumulative records, semilogarithmic charts, or scatterplots) from which valid and reliable decisions are best analyzed in your case study.
Remember, the visual format you select should depend on the type of raw data you collect from your case study and the primary purpose of its evaluation.
Justify how the selected form of data display will best allow you to make data-based decisions for your case study.
Remember, the primary function of graphic displays of behavioral data is to communicate quantitative relations.
Take into consideration validity, accuracy, and reliability of data.
The paper is graded on: Selects an appropriate data display to communicate quantitative relations, given a set of behavioral data; measures behavior to answer questions about the existence and nature of functional relations between socially significant behavior and environmental variables.
Applies measurement and data display (graphing) to make changes in human behavior; relates measurement methods to the environmental variables, available resources, and behavior of interest.
Applies data-based decision-making skills to make changes in human behavior; applies graphic displays of behavioral data to provide a format from which valid and reliable decisions from raw data are best analyzed.
How to Organize Your Paper Use the following subheadings in your paper and format your subheadings in APA style.
Subheading 1: Measurement Process.
Subheading 2: Visual Display.
Subheading 3: Data-Based Decisions.
Other Assignment Requirements Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Use current APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines.
References: At least 3�5 scholarly resources, which should be peer-reviewed journal articles or other scholarly articles written within the past 5 years.
Length of paper: Approximately 5�6 typed, double-spaced pages. Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
Case Study: The Strategy Tripod and MNE Strategy-Structure Approach
Research a major multinational firm (MNE) of your choice. Include in your research the characteristics the major industry(s) it competes in as well as the MNE�s global rivals. Avoid selecting a multinational conglomerate to avoid an unnecessarily complex analysis. Answer the following questions:
Which of the four multinational strategies is the MNE pursuing?
What organizational structure has it developed?
Considering the three legs of the strategy tripod, evaluate the �strategic fit� and alignment of the MNE�s strategy-structure multinational approach?
Does this approach offer any innovation or learning advantages over the approaches of the MNEs top rivals?
MNE 2012 Annual Report and media releases
Company information: OneSource
Industry information: Net Advantage and MarketLine
Commentary may include Reuters, WSJ, Financial Times, or industry-related publications
The Impact of Policy on Domestic Violence in California (Final Paper)
Use simple english.
This is a a pass or fail paper.
the name of the book for this paper is : “Public Policy 4th edition by Michael Kraft & Scott Furlong” (it should be a source)
Use APA 6th edition
Follow the instructions:
– attached you will find the content instructions, please read it carefully.
– Each section must be clearly noted. This report should be written with my audience consideration, and they are not expert about the topic.
– The paper is just stating facts. (statistics and numbers and graphs)
– No vague words such as (many, some, few, many, a lot…. etc) use numbers and facts please.
– this paper is an analytical report.
– Citation is needed between every 3 – 4 sentences.
– This paper should be specific (not general info)
The executive Summary:
it is clear in the attached files.
please read the attached files
Use2 main policies: which are Batteries and restraining orders.
please read the attached files
please mention at least 1 group going for the issue and at least one group going against the issue. (for example the NFL is going against the issue, because Domestic Violence in the Super Bowl weekend is elevating) please use this example in the paper in depth.
please read the attached files
Evaluation: (use chapter 6 in the book, “Criteria”)
please read the attached files
Use 3 criteria:
1- Liberty / freedom
3- Social Acceptability
please read the attached files
The attached files are important with this box
Case study on AtekPC Project Management Office
Read Case 3-3 The AtekPC Project Management Office pg 462 -474
Introduction: introduce the company, give some details about the use of IT in the company, etc and clearly state the theses statements (statements that you will be elaborating further while answering each question).
For each question follow the following format:
Question number: write down the question, then your analysis. Clearly state arguments, substantiate arguments with necessary details, and provide a conclusion(s).
1. What are the main challenges and obstacles in implementing a PMO?
2. Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the PMO-heavy model and PMO-light model, indicate which model you would recommend to AtekPC, and state the reasons of your recommendation
3. Clearly indicate how you would address the challenges and obstacles in implementing the model that you have recommended
Give some example and reference the page with in the paragraph .Include the example with the explanation . well written case and I need total of 4 page but don’t count any example taken from the case with in 4 pages.