1. State, Democracy and HR. Discuss how citizens can engage in politics in democratic states in order to influence decisions; which different ways are there and what characterizes these different ways?
2. State Capacity. Ethnic belonging is often of great importance for the access to security and power in several of the sub-Saharan African countries. Discuss why this is the case, as well as the relationship between failed states and ethnic conflicts.
Note that the literature examined is: Robert Rotberg: The New Nature of Nation-State Failure (article), Mahmood Mamdani: Indirect Rule, Civil Society, and Ethnicity: The African Dilema (article), Robert H. Bates: When things fell apart (book), Patrick Chabal, introduction chapter in Is Violence Inevitable in Africa? Theories of conflict and Approaches to Conflict Prevention, Red: Patrick Chabal, Ulf Engel, Anna-Maria Gentili.
3. Changes to World Politics.
Fifteen years ago, states Pluto and Mars were established as a result of the dissolution of a geopolitical power block, the Milky-block. Before that, Pluto’s territory was part of the colonial empire of Venus. Larger parts of Mars’ territory belonged previously to the colonial rule of Neptune. During a war between Venus and Neptune, parts of Pluto’s territory were occupied by Neptune, due to access to rich and varied natural resources. The leading clan in territory Pluto adopted the religion of Venus. Colonial power Neptune arranged itself with the religious leadership in territory Mars in order to exploit the population in a war against Pluto. Already during colonial rule a number of violations between the different populations took place. After the end of colonial rule both states were part of the Milky-block and the conflicts were toned down violently in favor of a shared communitarian ideology. After the dissolution of the Milky-block Mars retained its territory from the colonial period including the enclave rich of natural resources and populated by groups of Pluto’s population. Due to religious and ‘ethnic’ reasons a movement for independence has been organized and a wish expressed to join the territory of the enclave with Pluto, not at least since Pluto is an economically poor state with weak resources. Mars, the authoritarian president of which assumed power during a coup, is backed up by the former colonial power Neptune, which runs a state-owned exploiting firm in the enclave. The expressions of independence there are suppressed violently. Parts of the population have been dislocated by force. The “liberation front” of the enclave has responded to burn down temples belonging to the religion of the Mars-population. A Mars-militia – which also comprises members of the security guards of the exploitation company – is now operating in the enclave and reports have been received about targeted and systematic violations of the population of Pluto-origin. In a village dozens of men and boys have been killed and women raped. State Mars has prohibited the practice of Pluto’s religion. Parts of the population of the enclave have escaped to the neighboring countries, not at least Pluto, however not at all capable of receiving refugees.
Analyse the case from a HR-perspective!
(1) Which actors are there in the conflict?
(2) Which HR have been violated directly/indirectly?
(3) Does the situation pose a threat against “international peace and security”? If yes, why? If not, why not?
(4) Is there any substance for intervention from the side of the international community?