Geography field trip report -Research Paper

Order Description

Field Trip Objectives:
● Perform stream gauging at a number of selected sites representing a gradient of urbanization and associated storm water inputs
○ Relate the collected observations such as depth, point of maximum velocity and channel width to stream morphology and erosive potential
● Observe and take note of how the valley has been shaped by erosion and human modification, and determine if there is a gradient of impact from north to south
● Examine differences in water velocity, stream channel shape and discharge
● Take note of sources of pollution and any mitigation measures evident

Specific aspects of the Field Trip:
Your teaching assistant will lead you to your specific site, assign tasks and supervise activities. Students must record their own data in their field notebook. We will identify and discuss many important features as we traverse the river valley. Make sure to take careful and detailed notes, as these will assist you to write your field report. Pay particular attention to the following:
● river bank characteristics
○ reinforced vs. natural, vegetated vs. barren
● presence or absence of a riffle/pool dynamic indicative of a natural stream and suitable habitat

● presence or absence of aquatic vegetation
○ including riparian vegetation which shades water and reduces stream temperatures
● evidence of flooding and erosion
○ debris, mass wasting, vegetation stripped during high flow conditions
● evidence of pollution
○ i.e. foaming or discharge from storm drains
● stream channel characteristics
○ depth, flow speed, flow direction

Stream Gauging Equipment:
Measuring tape (100’), Metre Stick, Stopwatch, Orange peels, Drop weight 

Stream Gauging Procedure:
● Measure the width of the channel – record this in your field notebook
● Divide the width into 1m intervals (or as directed by your T.A.)
● Consult a simple diagram as follows – use the profiles provided below to construct the diagram

● Use the drop weight to determine the depth of the steam at each interval
● Determine the velocity of the stream by dropping an orange peel floater and measuring the time required to cover a defined distance (10 or 20 metres is sufficient). Repeat for each interval
○ Note whether the floaters deviate laterally from their initial placement in the stream, if they do, attempt again
○ Record the results in your notebook. You do not have to record the results in their final format – they may be converted later. For example, you might write that our floaters took 22 seconds to travel 10 meters – you can convert this into meters-per-second in your field notebook later.
● Apply the formula to calculate discharge for each interval. Sum the values to get the value for the stream as a whole. 
Q = V x W x D
Where Q is the discharge, V is the velocity, W is the average width and D is the average depth of the flow.
This final stage should be completed later in your field notebook. Please ensure that you have collected all the pertinent data before you leave the site. 
Use the following space to construct rough diagram of the stream